BIBLIOGRAPHY

Compendio di gemmoterapia clinica
-Fernando Piterà, De Ferrari Editore.
Dizionario di fitoterapia e piante medicinali - Enrica Campanini,Tecniche Nuove.
Fitomedicine e nutrienti-Pier Giorgio e Annamaria Pietta, Giuseppe Maria Ricchiuto Editore.
Gemmoterapia Pol Henry - Giuseppe Maria Ricchiuto Editore.
La nuova fitoterapia -Bergeret C. e Tetau M., Ed. del Riccio Firenze.

Abstract

In meristematic tissues there are bigger quantities of substances and active principles compared to those present in the adult plant. They are particularly rich in enzymes, vitamins, growth factors, nucleic acids (RNA, DNA), vegetal hormones (auxins, kinetins, gibberellins), as well as the active principles typical of the species (anthocyans, flavonoids, and so on). After having compared the bud with the adult tissue, we noticed important changes concerning the quality and the quantity of the active principles. A comparative study carried out at the University of Lyons by professors Netien and Rainaud, between buds and leaves of Ribes nigrum, highlighted important differences. In the buds there are seven anthocyans, three in the leaves, the total quantity of anthocyans in the bud is 28,6 mg/g, while in the leave is 28,6 mg/g. The arginine amino acid is present in the bud with a quantity equal to 5,7 mg/g, in the leave with 0,77 mg/g; in general, the quantity of amino acids is higher in the bud both concerning quality and quantity. Vitamin C is present in bigger quantity in the bud. Moreover, the blackcurrant bud contains flavonoids, phenolyc derivatives and essential oil.
Here you can find the Abstracts of some of the tests carried out. For further details, consult the bibliography written above.

Cold resistance test. This test evaluates the activity of Ribes nigrum buds on the suprarenal cortex; it allows to measure the cold resistance (-20) of rats treated with a derivative of Blackcurrant buds compared to untreated rats. The group treated with Blackcurrant buds shows a percentage of survival equal to 78% against a percentage of 27% in the untreated group. For this reason, the Ribes nigrum buds are considered cortisone-like products.

Test of the plantar oedema with formol allows showing the antiphlogistic activity of Ribes nigrum buds. We administered to a group of rats a placebo, while we treated the other group with a derivative of Ribes nigrum buds for 40 days, 1 ml per day for 5 days out of 7. We provoked an oedema in the paw in both groups by administering formol which has a phlogogen effect. We have noticed that the anti-oedematigenous activity of Ribes nigrum is at its top after 8 hours with an inhibition of the oedema of 42%, and it remains the same after twenty-four hours (34%) compared to the group of control.

Test with a small sponge or cotton board allows showing that in the inflammatory liquid of the rats treated with Ribes nigrum buds the number of cells is definitely inferior compared to the group of control. In particular, the number of monocyte cells (vacuolar monocytes and macrophages) is ten times less; these cells, because of the presence of lytic substances in their lysosomes, are powerful anti-inflammatory agents. This way we can show the anti-inflammatory activity of blackcurrant.

Freund’s adjuvant test causes an inflammation and an immunologic and humoral disorder similar to a rheumatic disease. The test carried out on rabbits showed that the administration of Ribes nigrum buds started thirteen days after the administration of the Freund’s adjuvant took again the alterations of the alpha-1-glycoprotein to a normal level and it manages to normalize gamma-globulins in ten days.

The different tests show that ribes nigrum buds act on the suprarenal cortex (cortisone-like action) and inhibit the inflammatory processes, as far as the exudate is concerned, but also by reducing the number of cells involved, as well as by normalizing the immune disorders of reaction.